2016 m. balandžio 13 d., trečiadienis

Burgundija - paskutinis nepriklausomas kunigaikštis

        





                     Dabar, kalbant apie Burgundiją, Prancūzijos provinciją, sunku patikėti, kad savo laiku Burgundijos Kunigaikštystė buvo viena iškiliausių šalių V.Europoje su savo kalba ir papročiais, savo valdovais ir t.t. Jai priklausė Nyderlandai, Belgija, Lotaringija, Franš Komtė. XV a. pabaigoje burgundiškoji mada tapo populiari visoje Europoje, ir pralenkė savo puošnumu ir rafinuotumu net Prancūzijos karaliaus dvaro madas. Deja Karolis, kurio sarkofago nuotrauka čia parodyta, paskutinis... nepriklausomas jos kunigaikštis, kurio valdymo metais Burgundija ir pasiekė didybės piką ir tuo pačiu savo žlugimą. Karolis kariavo vos ne su visa V.Europa, bet nebuvo genialus karvedys, ekonomistas ar bent jau politikas - nepajuto savo laiku tos plonos linijos, kai reikėjo sustoti... Tad vietoje to, kad išliktų suverenia valstybe, kai tam buvo visos galimybės, ji tapo tik Prancūzijos dalimi... Tokių šalių V.Europoje yra ne viena: Katalonija, Aragonas, Gaskonija, Škotija... Baskai (jie beje taip ir nesukūrė savo valstybės, bet intensyviai priešinosi išnaikinimui, kuris buvo vykdomas ne kartą ir ne du)... Kai pasižiūri į tokias istorijos peripetijas, tai kartais LDK likimas, kurios išdavoje dabar turime Lietuvos Respubliką - tas išlikimas atrodo kaip stebuklas...
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                 Beje, "Armanjako šalis" trilogijoje, šiam Burgundijos valdovui bus skirta ne menkas vaidmuo. Ir ši trilogija kaip tik ir baigiasi Karlo žūtimi (bet ne herojaus :) )


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Modern Medievalist  https://www.facebook.com/ModernMedievalist/photos/a.506719109356800.131057.506709836024394/1160994230595948/?type=3&fref=nf&pnref=story


Charles the Bold (French: Charles le Téméraire, Dutch: Karel de Stoute, 10 November 1433 – 5 January 1477), baptised Charles Martin, was Duke of Burgundy from 1...467 to 1477. He was the last Valois Duke of Burgundy.
His early death at Nancy, at the hands of the Swiss fighting for René II, Duke of Lorraine, was of great consequence in European history: The Burgundian domains, long wedged between the growing powers France and the Habsburgs, were divided, but as neither side was satisfied with the results, the disintegration of the Burgundian state, together with the question of the boundary between the French and German spheres of political influence, was a factor in most major wars in Western Europe for the following two centuries and beyond.
Making a last effort, Charles formed a new army and arrived in the dead of winter before the walls of Nancy. Having lost many of his troops through the severe cold, it was with only a few thousand men that he met the joint forces of the Lorrainers and the Swiss, who had come to the relief of the town, at the Battle of Nancy (5 January 1477). He himself perished in the fight, his naked and disfigured body being discovered some days afterward frozen into the nearby river. Charles' head had been cleft in two by a halberd, lances were lodged in his stomach and loins, and his face had been so badly mutilated by wild animals that only his physician was able to identify him by his long fingernails and the old battle scars on his body.
Charles' battered body was initially buried in the ducal church in Nancy, by René II, Duke of Lorraine. Later in 1550, his great-grandson, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, ordered it to be moved to the Church of Our Lady in Bruges, next to that of his daughter Mary. In 1562, Emperor Charles V's son and heir, King Philip II of Spain, erected a splendid mausoleum in early renaissance style over his tomb, still extant. Excavations in 1979 positively identified the remains of Mary, in a lead coffin, but those of Charles were never found.




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